GIS consists of five key components: -
Computer Hardware Module: It is generally a computer or central processing unit. It is linked to a disk drive storage unit, which provides space for storing data and programs. A digitizer, scanner and other device is used to convert data from maps and documents into digital form and send them to computer.
Computer Software Module: The GIS software includes the programs and the user interface for driving the hardware. GIS software generates, stores, analyzes, manipulates and presents geographic information or data. It is essential for driving the hardware.
Data: Geographic data and related tabular data can be collected in house, compiled to custom specifications and requirements, or purchased from a commercial data provider.
People: People are the core to GIS. Both technical specialists who develop and manage the system as well as end users who employ the technology are critical to the success of GIS.
Methods: A neatly conceived implementation plan and business rules are the models and operating practices, are unique to each organization